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What is Elul?

Elul - Observances

The King in The Field

Psalm 27


   Elul - The King in the Field

Elul - A Time To Take Stock

Chai Elul: Breathing New Life Into Our Divine Service

 Essays Elul - A Time To Take Stock

Adapted from Sichos of
Shabbos Parshas Shoftim, 5750

"I am My Beloved's"

Our Rabbis (1) note that the name "Elul" is an acronym for the Biblical phrase, (2) Ani L'Dodi V'Dodi Lee - "I am my Beloved's and my Beloved is mine."

In other words, the intense love between G-d and the Jewish people comes to the surface during Elul.

This particular verse also indicates that during Elul, it is man who takes the initiative in his relationship with G-d.

In chassidic thought (3) this verse is contrasted with a similar verse, (4) "My Beloved is mine and I am His," which reflects a different expression of this love relationship.

"My Beloved is mine" suggests the initiative is taken by divine revelation, which then evokes a response from man.

"I am my Beloved's," by contrast, suggests an expression of love initiated by man, to which G-d responds.

Is the Initiative Man's or G-d's?

In Likkutei Torah, (5) the Alter Rebbe describes the tightening of the bond between G-d and the Jewish people in the month of Elul with the following parable:

Before a king enters his city, its inhabitants go out to greet him and receive him in the field.

At that time, anyone who so desires is granted permission [and can] (6) approach him and greet him. He receives them all pleasantly and shows a smiling countenance to all....

This parable appears to contradict the direction suggested by the phrase, "I am my Beloved's," for the parable seems to indicate that in Elul it is G-d Who initiates the relationship, by revealing His Thirteen Attributes of Mercy.

(The Sages explain that these Attributes refer to an unlimited expression of Divine love.)

In contrast, the verse "I am my Beloved's" indicates that the initiative is taken by man.

In chassidic thought, (7) this difficulty is resolved by explaining that the revelation of the king in the field, i.e., the expression of the Thirteen Attributes of Mercy in the month of Elul, generates the potential for the initiative to be taken by man.

Otherwise the people of the field, ordinary men whose spiritual attainments are modest, would be incapable of turning to G-d with the inspired commitment expressed by the phrase, "I am my Beloved's."

Though the potential is initially granted from above, the nurturing of the love relationship depends on man's initiative.

The revelation of the Thirteen Attributes of Mercy is merely a catalyst.

In going out to the field, the king makes himself accessible to his people. It is the people, however, who take the step of turning to him.

Why the King Goes Into the Field

In Likkutei Torah, the parable is further used to explain the difference between the revelation of the Thirteen Attributes of Mercy in the month of Elul, and the revelation of these attributes on Yom Kippur.

On Yom Kippur, the king is in his palace; G-d reveals Himself in all His majesty.

During Elul, however, the king is in the field; G-d reveals Himself at a level which can be apprehended by man within the framework of his mundane reality.

However, G-d descends to this level not only in order to make Himself accessible to man. Rather, to borrow the terms of the analogy, the king meets his people in the field because a field has intrinsic value.

A field is a place where grain grows.

Growing grain and converting it into the food which sustains us requires a great deal of effort. And this effort symbolizes the full scope of our activities within our mundane sphere. (8)

The value of these activities can be seen from the fact that most of our time is spent dealing with our material needs and earning the means by which to provide for them; as it is written, (9) "Six days shall you work, and the seventh day shall be a Shabbos unto the L-rd, your G-d."

Faced with this state of affairs, we are inclined to wonder why G-d designed a world in which man is forced to involve himself primarily in material rather than in spiritual activities.

The reason for this seemingly problematic apportioning of time is that it reflects the purpose of creation.

G-d created the world so that He could have a "dwelling place in the lower worlds." (10)

In accordance with this desire, our service of G-d has to center on the ordinary details of existence for the purpose of in fusing them with G-dliness, and not on the purely spiritual as it exists on an abstract plane. (11)

In light of this, we can appreciate the significance of our parable to the month of Elul.

The king's presence in the field represents the ultimate purpose of creation. Our efforts must be directed towards bringing G-dliness into our material world.

G-d's Presence must be found not only in the royal palace, i.e., where spirituality is manifest; rather, even the lowest realms of existence must be transformed into a dwelling place for Him. (12)

G-d's Smiling Countenance

The parable of the king in the field expresses the importance of our divine service within the framework of the ordinary, but it also underscores the unique relationship between the king and His subjects.

In the field, "He receives them all pleasantly and shows a smiling countenance to all."

In the "field", G-d allows His subjects to relate to Him as His presence is manifest. (13)

Throughout the year, we emphasize the importance of carrying out our service of G-d in the field with the intent that this should lead to the revelation of the King's Presence.

In Elul, which marks the culmination of this service - and the preparation for the coming year - our efforts are rewarded by the perceptible revelation of the King's Presence.

Expressing Our Love Relationship
with G-d through Torah Study

In light of this, we can understand the importance of increasing our Torah study during Elul, (14) for the revelation of the King's Presence is dependent on the study of the Torah.

As mentioned above, our service of G-d in the field involves primarily mundane matters.

We concern ourselves with activities which are not in and of themselves holy, but are performed "for the sake of the King."

As our Sages state, (15) "All your deeds should be for the sake of heaven." And it is likewise written, (16) "Know Him in all your ways."

Because G-d desires a dwelling place in the lower worlds, this mode of divine service is valuable, but because it involves materiality, G-dliness is not manifest within this framework.(17)

It is, however, revealed through the study of Torah, because the Torah, the embodiment of G-d's will and wisdom, is one with Him. (18)

G-d's will is that His Presence be revealed "in the field"; i.e., that we recognize our world as His dwelling place.

This revelation depends upon the Torah study of the people of the field. Although they may be engaged in mundane activities for most of the day, the fixed times that they set aside for Torah study (19) suffuse their entire day with Torah.

In this manner, manifest G-dliness is drawn down into every aspect of their lives, even into the day-to-day activities of "the field."

The "men of the field" need not forego their ordinary activities entirely and devote themselves solely to Torah study. This is not what G-d desires. In the parable, when the king passes through the field, the people pause from their work and approach him. (20)

Similarly, during Elul, although the "men of the field" continue their daily activities, because they are aware of the King's Presence they should also increase their Torah study.

Hence the emphasis during Elul on Torah study as well as prayer, for they are both associated with the verse, "I am my Beloved's." (21)

In fact, our love relationship with G-d is most completely expressed through the study of the Torah.

Thus the verse, (22) "He kisses me with the kisses of His mouth," alludes (23) to Torah study, a time at which G-d's words are in one's mouth.

By intensifying our love relationship with G-d during Elul, we ensure that the entire Jewish people is inscribed with a kesivah vachasimah tovah, and is granted abundant blessings in the coming new year.

May those blessings include the most fundamental and necessary blessing - the coming of the Redemption, and may this take place in the immediate future.


  1. Avudraham, Seder Rosh HaShanah, ch. 1; Reishis Chochmah, Shaar HaTeshuvah, ch. 4.

  2. Shir HaShirim 6:3.

  3. See Or HaTorah, Parshas Re'eh, p. 791.

  4. Shir HaShirim 2:16.

  5. Parshas Re'eh, p. 32b (English translation; Sichos In English, 5750).

  6. The bracketed addition is based on the Previous Rebbe's quotation of the parable in Sefer HaMaamarim 5700,p. 167.

  7. See the maamar entitled Ani LeDodi 5726.

  8. All our actions in the material world are metaphorically included in the 39 categories of creative activity which are forbidden on the Sabbath. These categories are defined in terms of the activities which were necessary for the construction of the Sanctuary. This teaches us that our mundane activities must be informed with the intention of creating a Sanctuary for G-d - making the world "a dwelling place for Him."

  9. Shmos 20:9-10.

  10. Midrash Tanchuma, Parshas Bechukosai, sec. 3. See also Tanya, chs. 33 and 36.

  11. The primacy of such service is also emphasized by our Sages (Shabbos 31a), who state that the first question a soul will be asked in judgment in afterlife is, "Did you deal justly in business?" Even before being questioned about Torah study or prayer, the soul will have to give an account of its dealings in terms of material reality.

  12. The above concepts shed light on the meaning of the verse (Koheles 5:8), "There is an advantage to the work of the land in all things; a king is subjugated to the field." The plain meaning of this verse is that a king is dependent on fields for his sustenance. On a more abstract level, the verse means that work in the field, i.e., our divine service in the workaday world, provides the Divine King with His livelihood, as it were. Since it is this service which fulfills His desire for a dwelling place in the lower worlds, He is (so to speak) subjugated to the field and the people who carry out this service.

  13. Furthermore, the revelation of G-d "in the field," in this lowly material world, is superior to His revelation in His "palace", the higher spiritual worlds. In the higher spiritual worlds, only those aspects of G-dliness that can be grasped and comprehended are revealed. In contrast, G-d's essence, which transcends all limits, and transcends even the distinction between revelation and hiddenness, finds expression "in the field," in our material world.

  14. The connection between Elul and Torah study is indicated by the parallel between the Thirteen Attributes of Mercy which radiate during the month of Elul and the Thirteen Rules of Biblical Interpretation (Pri Etz Chayim, Shaar Olam HaAsiyah, sec. 6). Elul is also associated historically with the Giving of the Torah, because Moshe Rabbeinu ascended Mount Sinai to receive the Second Tablets on Rosh Chodesh Elul (Reishis Chochmah, loc. cit.).

  15. Avos 2:17.

  16. Mishlei 3:6.

  17. Rather, this mode of divine service brings about the revelation of those dimensions of G-dliness which are enclothed within the world.

  18. See Tanya, chs. 4-5.

  19. As explained in Or HaTorah (Parshas Vayigash, p. 360b), Torah study must be "firmly fixed" not only in our schedules, but also "firmly fixed" within our souls.

  20. See the essay above entitled "A Bond of Oneness: The Legacy of Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai."

  21. The verse which begins, "I am my Beloved's...," concludes with the phrase, "...the shepherd among the roses." See Shabbos 30b, where our Sages associate this phrase with "those who study halachos."

  22. Shir HaShirim 1:2.

  23. See Tanya, Iggeres HaTeshuvah, chs. 9 and 10.

 Essays Elul - A Time To Take Stock

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